As part of the cultural achievements associated with the Harlem Renaissance, such black female authors as Zora Neale Hurston, Nella Larsen, and Jessie Redmon Fauset added to the prolific literary output of the period. Through works of both fiction and non-fiction, these writers contributed to various journals, such as The Crisis, Opportunity, and the short-lived Fire!!, as well as publications in their own right. Hurston, along with Marita Bonner, wrote various plays and became active figures in the development of black theater. In particular, Hurston used much of her anthropological research in the South on black dialect and folklore in her various works of both fiction and drama. Moreover, visual artists like Augusta Savage, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, and Loïs Mailou Jones were part of the burgeoning creativity occurring in African American art. The cultural contributions of the women of the Harlem Renaissance were not limited only to literature and the visual arts but were also prevalent in entertainment and music. Josephine Baker, Ethel Waters, and Nina Mae McKinney graced the stage as performers to large crowds. In addition, female musicians of the period, such as Mamie Smith, Alberta Hunter, Florence Mills, Ma Rainey, Billie Holiday, Ethel Waters, and Ella Fitzgerald, contributed immensely to innovations in jazz and blues and the further popularization of black music as a mainstream genre through performances and recorded works.
As such, the Harlem Renaissance served not only to highlight the cultural vibrancy of the entire black community, but also to display and exalt the talent of black women during an era when both sexism and racism severely limited their opportunities.