Focus on Treaties for Native American Heritage Month
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Indian Removal Timeline

1802 Georgia Compact, in which the United States promises to extinguish Native American titles to lands inside Georgia.

Louisiana Purchase agreement is made.

President Thomas Jefferson proposes voluntary removal of tribes.

Ohio becomes a state.
1810 Ogden Land Company acquires preemptive rights to Native lands in New York.
1812 Louisiana becomes a state.
1813 Red Stick War begins.
1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson (1814) concludes the Red Stick War.
1816 First Seminole War begins.

Indiana becomes a state.
1817 Alabama becomes a state.

Andrew Jackson's forces invade Florida.

Treaty with the Cherokee (1817) provides for land cession and voluntary removal to the West.
1818 Treaty with the Delaware (1818) at St. Mary's cedes all Delaware land claims in Indiana.

Treaty with the Miami (1818) at St. Mary's provides for their removal from Indiana.

Quapaw cede large area of land in Arkansas.
1819 Illinois becomes a state.

Mississippi becomes a state.

Treaty of Washington (1819) with the Cherokee provides for land cession and voluntary removal to the West.

Main body of Kickapoo remove west of the Mississippi.
1820 Treaty of Doak's Stand (1820), first Choctaw removal treaty, exchanges part of Choctaw land in Mississippi for land west of Arkansas.

Delaware remove from Indiana.
1821 Missouri becomes a state.

Treaty of Indian Springs (1821) cedes Creek lands between the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers in Georgia.

The Creek pass a law forbidding the sale or cession of Creek land.
1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek (1823) provides for removal of Florida Indians to central Florida.
1824 Quapaw cede their remaining lands in Arkansas.
1825 Treaty of Indian Springs (1825) cedes most of remaining Creek lands in Georgia.

William McIntosh executed for engineering the Treaty of Indian Springs in violation of Creek law.
1827 Alabama enacts legislation to extend laws over Indian lands.

Treaty with the Creek (1827) at Fort Mitchell cedes remaining Creek lands in Georgia.

Cherokee write a constitution.

Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) "uprising" against lead miners.
1828 Cherokee Phoenix is established with Elias Boudinot as editor.

Georgia passes a law attaching Cherokee lands to Georgia counties.

Andrew Jackson is elected president.

Commission is organized to arrange Ottawa and Miami removal.

Western Cherokee remove from Arkansas to Indian Territory.
1829 Alabama enacts additional legislation to extend laws over Indian lands.

Additional acts by Georgia nullify Cherokee law and deny right of Cherokee to testify against whites.

John H. Eaton becomes secretary of war and urges Congress to establish an organized Indian Territory in the West.
1830 Indian Removal Act (1830) passes Congress.

Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830) with the Choctaw provides for their removal.

Georgia law outlaws Cherokee government and confiscates gold fields.

Georgia passes law requiring license and loyalty oath for whites to remain in Cherokee lands.

Mississippi extends laws over Native Americans within its borders.

Chickasaw Treaty of Franklin is first treaty negotiated under the Indian Removal Act, but becomes null and void.
1831 Georgia law requires license and loyalty oath for whites living in Cherokee country.

Georgia Guard is authorized by Georgia law.

Lewis Cass becomes secretary of war.

Little Rock Office of Removal and Subsistence is established.

Choctaw removal begins.

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia says Cherokee Nation is not a foreign nation under the Constitution.

Samuel A. Worcester and other missionaries are arrested.

Treaty of Lewistown with Seneca/Shawnee of Lewistown provides for their removal from Ohio.

Treaty with the Shawnee (1831) at Wapakoneta cedes land and provides for their removal from Ohio.

Treaty of with the Ottawa (1831) of Blanchard's Fork and Oquanoxa's Village at Detroit cedes lands and provides for their removal from Ohio.

Treaty with the Menominee (February 8, 1831) adjusts relations with New York Indians.

Treaty of cession and removal is made with the Seneca of Sandusky.
1832 Worcester v. Georgia declares Georgia's extension of laws to Cherokee unconstitutional.

Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832) provides for Seminole removal.

Georgia enacts legislation to outlaw Cherokee government.

Treaty of Pontotoc (1832) provides for Chickasaw removal.

Black Hawk's War occurs.

Andrew Jackson reelected as president.

Georgia begins confiscating Cherokee property.

Treaty with the Creek (1832) at Washington provides for allotment of Creek lands in Alabama.

Cholera epidemic breaks out in the West.

Stokes Commission is established to prepare Indian Territory tribes for forced removal of others.

Treaty with the Winnebago (1832) at Fort Armstrong cedes lands in southwestern Wisconsin and northern Illinois.

Missouri Kickapoo removed.

Alabama extends its laws over Creek country.

Treaty of McCutcheonsville (1832) with Wyandotte of Ohio cedes lands.

Indian Vaccination Act is passed.

Treaty with Sauk and Fox (1832) at Fort Armstrong cedes their lands east of the Mississippi and provides for their removal.

Treaty with the Appalachicola Band (1832) relinquishes their reservations in Florida and fixes the date for their removal.

Treaty of Camp Tippecanoe with the Potawatomi of the Prairie and Kaukakee cedes Indiana lands.

Treaty of Tippecanoe River with Potawatomi cedes land.

Treaty with Shawne, Etc. (1832) and Delaware cedes lands in Missouri.

Treaty at Tippecanoe River with Potawatomi cedes lands in Indiana and Michigan.

Treaty with Kaskaskia, Etc. (1832) and Peoria at Castor Hill cedes lands in Illinois and Missouri.

Treaty with Menominee cedes lands for Stockbridges, Munsees, Brothertons, and New York Indians.

Treaty with the Piankeshaw and Wea (1832) at Castor Hill cedes lands of  in Illinois and Missouri.
1833 Treaty with Quapaw (1833) provides for their removal to Indian Territory.

Illinois Kickapoo removed.

Sale of Choctaw allotments begins.

Treaty with the Western Cherokee (1833) at Fort Gibson defines limits of Cherokee lands in the West.

Treaty with the Creek (1833) at Fort Gibson defines limits of Creek lands in the West and lays the groundwork for Seminole settlement with the Creek.

Treaty with the Ottawa (1833) of Ohio cedes land and provides for their removal.

Treaty with the Seminole (1833) at Fort Gibson with a Seminole delegation is used by the United States as a removal agreement by the entire tribe.

Treaty with Apalachicola cedes lands and provides for removal.

Treaty of Chicago (1833) with United Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, cedes lands and provides for removal.

Supplementary Treaty of Chicago is made with United Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi residing in the Territory of Michigan south of Grand River.
1834 Appalachicola removal begins.

Treaty requires Caddo to remove beyond the limits of the United States.

Indian Intercourse Acts designates territories beyond Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri "Indian country."

Sale of Creek lands begins.

Chickasaw sign an agreement at Washington that supplements the Treaty of Pontotoc.

Creek voluntary removal begins.

Treaty with the Miami (1834) at the Forks of the Wabash cedes land in Indiana.

Second treaty at the Forks of the Wabash with Miamis cedes land in Indiana.

Treaty with Potawatomi (December 10, 1834) at Tippecanoe River cedes land in Indiana.

Treaty with Potawatomi (December 16, 1834) at Tippecanoe River cedes land in Indiana.

Treaty with Potawatomi (December 17, 1834) at Potawattimie Mills cedes land in Indiana.

Treaty with Potawatomi (December 24, 1834) at Logansport cedes land in Indiana.
1835 Treaty with the Caddo (1835) at the Caddo Agency provides for their removal outside the limits of the United States.

Treaty of New Echota (1835) provides for Cherokee removal.
1836 Arkansas becomes a state.

Martin Van Buren is elected president.

Lower Creek engage in a war that results in forced Creek removal.

Seminole removal begins.

Forced Creek removal begins.

Texas becomes a republic.

Menominee sign the Treaty of the Cedars (1836), establishing their Wisconsin reservation.

Treaty of Washington (1836) with Michigan Ottawas and Chippewa cedes land and provides for removal.

Ottawa and Chippewa of Mashigo, Grand River, Michilimackinac, Sault Ste Marie, L'Arbre Croche, and Grand Traverse sign cession and removal treaties.

Treaty with the Chippewa (1836) at Washington cedes land and establishes reservation.

Treaty with the Potawatomi (March 29, 1836) cedes land.

Treaty of Turkey Creek Prairie (1836) with Potawatomi cedes land and provides for removal.

Treaty with the Potawatomi (September 20, 1836) at Chippewanaung cedes land and provides for their removal from Indiana.

Treaty with the Potawatomi (September 22, 1836) at Chippewanaung cedes land and provides for their removal from Indiana.

Treaty with the Potawatomi (September 23, 1836) at Chippewanaung cedes land and provides for their removal from Indiana.

Treaty with the Sauk and Fox (September 27, 1836) at Dubuque County, Wisconsin, cedes land and provides for removal.

Treaty with the Sauk and Fox (September 27, 1836) at Dubuque County, Wisconsin, cedes land.
1837 Treaty of Doaksville (1837) provides for Chickasaw removal.

Chickasaw removal begins.

General John Wool arrives in Cherokee Nation to prevent rebellion against the Treaty of New Echota.

National banking crisis known as the Panic of 1837 begins.

Treaty of Detroit with Saginaw Chippewa cedes land and provides for removal.

Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution is drafted.

Wreck of the Monmouth kills 311 Creeks.

Michigan becomes a state.

Treaty with Potawatomi (1837) of Indiana at Washington cedes land.

Treaty of St. Peters (1837) with Chippewa cedes land.

Treaty with Sauk and Fox (1837) at Washington cedes land and provides for removal.

Treaty with Winnebago (1837) cedes land and provides for removal.
1838 Cherokee forced removal begins.

Fort Coffee is abandoned in Indian Territory.

Potawatomi are forced to remove from Indiana on their Trail of Death.

General Winfield Scott arrives in Cherokee Nation to enforce Cherokee removal.

Treaty of Buffalo Creek (1838) with New York tribes cedes land and provides land for them in the West.

Treaty with the Chippewa (1838) of Saginaw cedes land.

Treaty with the Oneida (1838) at Washington with the First Christian and Orchard Parties of Oneida cedes land and establishes reservations.

Treaty with the Miami (1838) cedes land and provides for removal.
1839 Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot, Cherokee, are assassinated.

Treaty with the Stockbridge and Munsee (1839) at Stockbridge cedes land and provides for removal of Stockbridge and Munsee in Wisconsin.

Brothertons are made U.S. citizens.

Kickapoo in Kansas remove to Indian Territory.
1840 Treaty with the Miami (1840) cedes land and provides for their removal from Indiana.
1842 Colonel Ethan A. Hitchcock reports on fraud in Indian rationing in the West.

U.S. officials declare Second Seminole War ended.

Treaty with the Wyandot (1842) is signed.

Treaty with the Seneca (1842) at Buffalo Creek provides for Seneca removal.

Treaty of LaPointe (1842) with Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior cedes land.
1843 Wyandotte remove from Ohio.
1845 Florida becomes a state.
1846 Miami remove from Indiana.

Iowa becomes a state.
1848 Wisconsin becomes a state.
1851 Potawatomi remove from Wisconsin.
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act organizes Kansas Territory.
1855 Third Seminole War begins.
1857 Tonawanda Seneca buy land from Ogden Land Company.
1858 Billy Bowlegs, the last major Seminole leader, removes from Florida.
1859 Seminole removal ends.
 

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