Sputnik Escalates the Cold War
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Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr. (1902–1985)

Title: Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
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Prominent Republican senator from Massachusetts and longtime U.S. diplomat. Born in Nahant, Massachusetts, on 5 July 1902, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was the grandson of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. The younger Lodge graduated from Harvard University in 1924 and worked as a journalist until 1931. After serving in the Massachusetts state legislature during 1933–1936, he was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1936.

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Lodge and Republican Senator Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan forged a bipartisan consensus behind President Franklin D. Roosevelt's wartime policies. Lodge thoroughly rejected the traditional isolationist position of the Republican Party that had, ironically, been championed by his grandfather, who had led the fight against the League of Nations in 1920. Lodge won reelection in 1942, but he resigned his Senate seat in 1944 to serve in the U.S. Army as a lieutenant colonel.

In 1946 Lodge was again elected to the Senate. Paired again with Vandenberg, Lodge supported President Harry Truman's foreign policies by voting for both the Marshall Plan and U.S. entry into the North American Treaty Organization (NATO). During his second term, Lodge became convinced that the United States needed a president who could overcome latent Republican isolationism. He therefore backed General Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 campaign, serving as Eisenhower's campaign manager. Ironically, while Eisenhower won in a landslide, Lodge lost his Senate seat to John F. Kennedy.

Lodge served as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (UN) during 1953–1960. He ran for vice president alongside Richard M. Nixon in 1960, an election they lost to Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. After that, Lodge became a consultant to Time magazine until President Kennedy named him U.S. ambassador to the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, South Vietnam) in August 1963. Lodge, reacting to increasing American disaffection with the South Vietnamese government, was involved in supporting the South Vietnamese generals who toppled President Ngo Dinh Diem in a coup in November 1963. Lodge was recalled by President Johnson in January 1964 but returned as ambassador in 1965, serving until 1967. Lodge then was U.S. ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) during 1968–1969.

Republican President Richard M. Nixon appointed Lodge to head the U.S. delegation to the Vietnam peace negotiations in Paris in January 1969. In 1970 he was named Nixon's special representative to the Vatican, a position he held until 1977. Lodge died on 25 February 1985 in Beverly, Massachusetts.

Chris Tudda


Further Reading
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr. As It Was: An Inside View of Politics and Power in the 50s and 60s. New York: Norton, 1976.; Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr. The Storm Has Many Eyes: A Personal Narrative. New York: Norton, 1973.; Pruden, Caroline. Conditional Partners: Eisenhower, the United Nations, and the Search for a Permanent Peace. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998.
 

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