Sputnik Escalates the Cold War
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Goodpaster, Andrew Jackson (1915–2005)

U.S. Army general and Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). Born in Granite City, Illinois, on 12 February 1915, Andrew Goodpaster attended McKendree College in Lebanon, Illinois, for two years before transferring to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point. After his graduation in 1939 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the engineers. He served in North Africa and Italy during World War II, rising to command the 48th Combat Engineer Battalion. He was twice wounded and earned both the Distinguished Service Cross and the Silver Star.

Returning to the United States in 1944 afer being wounded the second time, Goodpaster served three years on the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) in Washington, D.C. He then attended Princeton University, earning MA degrees in civil engineering and political science and in 1950 a PhD in international relations. He went on to serve in staff positions in Washington and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE).

Goodpaster then served as staff secretary and defense liaison officer for President Dwight Eisenhower during 1954–1961. Goodpaster was promoted to brigadier general in 1957 and major general in 1961. He was assistant commander of the 3rd Infantry Division and then commanded the 8th Infantry Division in Europe. He returned to Washington in 1962 to senior staff responsibilities on the JCS. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1964. He then commanded the National Defense University for a year before being promoted to full general in 1968.

During 1968–1969, Goodpaster served as deputy commander of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV). During 1969–1974, he was SACEUR for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He played an important role in helping persuade the British and Canadian governments to rescind cuts in their defense allocations for forces in Europe. He retired from the army in 1974.

In 1977 Goodpaster was recalled to active duty as superintendent at West Point following a cheating scandal at the academy. He voluntarily gave up a star so that he might hold that position as a lieutenant general. After implementing wide-ranging reforms, he retired for a second time in 1981. He remained active as a commentator on national security and international affairs and was a senior fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Eisenhower Institute. Goodpaster was also a founder of the Committee on the Present Danger, which held that the Soviet military threat was underestimated. After the end of the Cold War, however, he advocated reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles. Goodpaster was writing his memoirs at the time of his death from prostate cancer on 16 May 2005 in Washington, D.C.

Jerome V. Martin and Spencer C. Tucker


Further Reading
Goodpaster, Andrew J. Strengthening Conventional Deterrence in Europe: A Program for the 1980s. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.; Goodpaster, Andrew J., et al. U.S. Policy toward the Soviet Union. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988.; Jordan, Robert S., ed. Generals in International Politics: NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987.
 

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