During 1946–1947, Dulles participated in early Cold War containment of the Soviet Union by resisting its economic exploitation of its Austrian occupation zone. She also helped launch the Marshall Plan in Austria. In the fall of 1948 she returned to Washington to work in the State Department's Western European Division. After President Dwight Eisenhower's 1952 election she became a special assistant in the Office of German Affairs and informally advised her brother John Foster Dulles, then secretary of state. Her programs bolstered the morale of this crucial Cold War outpost, as she directed many reconstruction projects to lower the Federal Republic of Germany's (FRG, West Germany) high unemployment rate. In 1959 she returned to Washington but failed to break through the glass ceiling to obtain further promotion in the State Department. She retired from public service in 1962 and went on to teach at Duke and Georgetown universities until 1971. Dulles died in Washington, D.C., on 30 October 1996.
Bischof, Günter, Anton Pelinka, and Dieter Stiefel, eds. The Marshall Plan in Austria. Contemporary Austrian Studies, Vol. 8. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2000.; Dulles, Eleanor Lansing. Chances of a Lifetime: A Memoir. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980.; Dunne, Lynne K. "Joining the Boys' Club: The Diplomatic Career of Eleanor Lansing Dulles." Pp. 119–135 in Women and American Foreign Policy: Lobbyists, Critics, and Insiders, edited by Edward P. Crapol. 2nd ed. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1992.