Double Victory: Minorities and Women During World War II
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Pact of Neutrality between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Japan and Declaration Regarding Mongolia, 13 April 1941

In April 1941, the Soviet Union and Japan, the past relations of which had often been difficult, signed a formal agreement that they would remain neutral toward each other. Russia also agreed to respect Japan's interests in Manchuria, in exchange for reciprocal pledges from Japan on Mongolia. Later that year, Germany invaded the Soviet Union and Japan declared war on both the United States and Britain. Even so, these agreements remained in effect until the summer of 1945, shortly before Japan's surrender.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, guided by a desire to strengthen peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, have decided to conclude a pact on neutrality, for which purpose they have appointed as their Representatives: [names omitted]

Who, after an exchange of their credentials, which were found in due and proper form, have agreed on the following:

ARTICLE ONE

Both Contracting Parties undertake to maintain peaceful and friendly relations between them and mutually respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of the other Contracting Party.

ARTICLE TWO

Should one of the Contracting Parties become the object of hostilities on the part of one or several third powers, the other Contracting Party will observe neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict.

ARTICLE THREE

The present Pact comes into force from the day of its ratification by both Contracting Parties and remains valid for five years. In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years.

ARTICLE FOUR

The present Pact is subject to ratification as soon as possible. The instruments of ratification shall be exchanged in Tokyo, also as soon as possible. . . .

Declaration Regarding Mongolia, 13 April 1941

In conformity with the spirit of the Pact on neutrality concluded on April 13, 1941, between the U.S.S.R. and Japan, the Government of the U.S.S.R. and the Government of Japan, in the interest of insuring peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, solemnly declare that the U.S.S.R. pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of Manchukuo and Japan pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of the Mongolian People's Republic.


Further Reading
Web site: The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School. Available at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/bluebook/blbk56.htm. .
 

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