In 1940, Rankin returned to the House of Representatives, where she opposed the military draft and spending on armaments. On 8 December 1941, immediately following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war against Japan. Rankin was the only dissenter, preventing a unanimous vote. This stance was extremely unpopular and ended her political career.
A lifelong pacifist, Rankin led several thousand women, known as the Jeannette Rankin Brigade, to protest the Vietnam War in 1968. She died in Carmel, California, on 18 May 1973.
Giles, Kevin S. Flight of the Dove: The Story of Jeannette Rankin. Beaverton, OR: Touchstone, 1980.; Josephson, Hannah. Jeannette Rankin: First Lady in Congress. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974.; Smith, Norma. Jeannette Rankin: America's Conscience. Helena: Montana Historical Society, 2002.