Read to every Soviet soldier, since many were illiterate, these measures were bitterly resented by leaders such as Zhukov, who not only realized the real situations in which Soviet soldiers had been forced to surrender, but who also believed that both Stalin and Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov had collaborated with the Germans themselves in the 23 August 1939 nonaggression pact with Germany. Despite wide knowledge of these orders within the Soviet Union, the documents concerning them were not made public officially until Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was in power, nearly 50 years after the war.
Chaney, Otto Preston. Zhukov. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.; Laqueur, Walter. Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.; Seaton, Albert. Stalin as Military Commander. New York: Praeger, 1976.