Oktyabrsky directed Odessa's land defenses from July to October 1941 and executed a masterly evacuation of Odessa on the night of 15–16 October. From November 1941 to June 1942, Oktyabrsky directed the defense of Sevastopol against German attack, being evacuated on orders from Moscow at the last moment. He again headed the Amur Military Flotilla from June 1943 to March 1944 and then commanded the Black Sea Fleet as a full admiral.
Continuing as commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Oktyabrsky was also first deputy commander in chief of the navy until 1950. His criticism of naval policy led to his retirement that year, but he reemerged in 1957 to head the Black Sea Higher Naval School. In 1959, he joined the General Inspector's Group. Oktyabrsky died in Sevastopol on 8 July 1969.
Spencer C. Tucker
Achkasov, V., and N. B. Pavlovich. Soviet Naval Operations in the Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1981.; Fairhall, David. Russian Sea Power: An Account of Its Present Strength and Strategy. Boston: Gambit Inc., 1971.